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McGill—Queen's University Press. The Making of Sikh Scripture. US: Oxford University Press. Concept Publishing Company.

University of Chicago Press. The Encyclopedia of Sikhism over Entries. Philadelphia: Chelsea House. Sussex Academic Press.

Sikhism:Religion in focus. Black Rabbit Books. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Mumbai Mirror. SUNY Press. A large number of Hindu and Muslim peasants converted to Sikhism from conviction, fear, economic motives, or a combination of the three Khushwant Singh ; Ganda Singh Fenech The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies.

Journal of the American Oriental Society. History of Sikh Gurus Retold: — Encyclopaedia of Great Festivals. Abhinav Publications. Encyclopaedia of Sikhism.

Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 9 April Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed. Bloomsbury Academic.

Understanding Sikhism, the Research Journal 2 : 3. Retrieved 10 November Agree to Differ. The Hans India. Retrieved 10 July Merriam-Webster's encyclopedia of world religions.

Retrieved 15 June You are the One True Lord and Master of all the other beings, of so many worlds. Searches in Sikhism.

Hemkunt Press. Sikhism and Indian Civilization. Discovery Publishing House. Paths to The Divine: Ancient and Indian: Singh, Japji, , Hemkunt Press, p.

In Sikh religion the word 'Guru' does not denote a teacher, or an expert or a guide in human body. Janmeja Meji August The Sikh Review.

Archived from the original PDF on 3 December Retrieved 29 November Definitions of Sikhism" PDF. Understanding Sikhism — the Research Journal.

Archived from the original PDF on 4 December Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. The Sikhs of the Punjab. UK: Cambridge University Press. Dorling Kindersley.

Wayne April Bibliotheca Sacra. The Encyclopedia of Sikhism. New Delhi, India: Hemkunt Press. The Sikh and Sikhism.

Searches in Sikhism 1st ed. New Delhi: Hemkunt Press. Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Sikhism Today. Bloomsbury Publishing.

London: Routledge. Singh and L E. University of Tennessee Press. Raj South Asian Religions: Tradition and Today. Re-imagining South Asian Religions.

Brill Academic. Hindu spirituality: Postclassical and modern Editors: K. Sundararajan, Bithika Mukerji. English: Motilal Banarsidass.

Colors of Truth, Religion Self and Emotions. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. Scott Columbia University Press.

Celestial Gems. Sikh Publishing House; First edition. Sikh Music: History, Text, and Praxis. Sikhism, Origin and Development. King; J.

Brockington Orient Blackswan. Owen Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi Hadley The Spiritual Roots of Restorative Justice. State University of New York Press.

Movement and Change. Nelson Thornes. Hadley, Michael ed. John Renard ed. University of California Press. Columbia University Press; Reprint edition.

McLeod The A to Z of Sikhism. Louis, Mcleod, H. Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Fenech; W. Chandigarh: Panjab Publishers.

Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction. OUP Oxford. History of Sikh Gurus Retold: — C. Hymns of Guru Nanak. Archived from the original on 6 June Retrieved 9 June Abingdon: Routledge.

India: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. The Linguistic Survey of India. India: Motilal Banarsidass. Songs of the Saints from the Adi Granth.

United States: Oxford University Press. Penguin UK. The main thrust of Kabir's mission was to unite Hindus and Muslims in a common quest for god realisation.

Look within your heart, for there you will find [god]. All men and women in the world are his living forms.

The this and that haggling, is done. God Loves Diversity and Justice. Lexington Books. The Sikh Divine comprises every imaginable theological ideal!

Hindu, Buddhist, Tantric, and Islamic views that were current in medieval India come together in the wide-ranging literary spectrum of the GGS. The stereotypical oppositions between the Indic and Abrahamic worldviews of the day are transcended: "Some call it Rama, some call it Khuda; some worship it as Vishnu, some as Allah" GGS: Persian terminology is used to emphasize the unity of being: "asti ek digari kui ek tui ek tui —Only the One is, there is none other; Only you, you only" GGS: The term "Turk" referred to all Muslims in this period.

Since everything is a manifestation of That One being, all the manifestations would be a part of it. No god, no body, and no thing is excluded from this all pervasive being.

Oxford Symposium. The Culture of India. The Rosen Publishing Group. Sikhism: a Very Short Introduction. Scarecrow Press.

Traditional Festivals: A Multicultural Encyclopedia. Wellman, Jr. Sikhism: An Introduction. Fabrizio Ferrari ed.

Thursby Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi Sikhism and Christianity: A Comparative Study. Singha Infobase Publishing. The Sikhs and Their Scriptures 2nd ed.

Lucknow Publishing House. Encyclopedia of Women and Religion in North America. Indiana University Press. Archived from the original on 6 April Retrieved 8 June India: Oxford University Press.

United Kingdom: Routledge. Sikh Twareekh. Princeton: Princeton University Press. New Delhi: Discovery Publishing House.

Publications Pvt. Founders and Leaders. Dublin: Folens Limited. Punjab University Patiala. Farhadian Introducing World Religions. Baker Academic.

Textual Sources for the Study of Sikhism. A Sea of Orange. Also, I could delete those files just fine, I just couldn't write them. So I host my dev snapshots myself now.

Also, the download speed is faster than MEGA. Their sync program can only download one file every few minutes right now, but uploading works.

The service seems to be under attack or so. While the time limits usually run out on March 1st and September 1st, I made a mistake that caused them to run out on January 1st but the message will still say September 1st.

I want everyone who updated to update to the 3. Compared to 3. The time limit will still run out on March 1st, , because I want to do some more changes for the final 3.

The testing environment and the website moved to a new server yesterday. See the 12 Nov news why. The server is still located in the same datacenter, First-Colo in Frankfurt.

I find the routing and peering to be the best one available and made a chart of vServer offers for a maximum of 6 Euros per month in German.

It includes badges support, some improved features and a big number of bugfixes. See the changelog for more details. Surprisingly, VirusTotal.

I changed my cloud sync provider again, because Syncplicity does not properly work when the client is not running while files are changed, which is a problem because I only sync periodically.

Links have already been updated yesterday. I solved that by uploading folders with many files via browser with their extension installed instead of their client.

Hilariously, the browser extension tells me to use the sync client for better performance. Once all files are in the cloud, performance for merging and syncing small updates appears to be quite good.

It seems that merging is done by hash, so all existing files are read for hashing. What is also strange is that it syncs deleted items and old revisions to your disk.

At least sometimes. Cubby had all this. Why free? Because the smallest plans cloud sync services offer are always some hundred gigabytes — with the corresponding price tags of around 10 euros a month.

Everything is totally fine right now, but you never know how long. According to discussions at LowEndBox.

Their previous project evorack whose name is displayed in PayPal caused people similar problems and its domain is now parked. My next provider is likely going to be Linevast.

There is no cheap SSD-powered offer right now, but they are known for their Advent calendar. Hope that Rackburst will last for two more months.

Cubby, the cloud space provider I use for my project files since late , will be shutting down soon. The most important change is that there is only one linke for both, the English and the German snapshot, because other than Cubby, pcloud does not display the date upload date in this case for single files.

It includes a few new features and a big number of bugfixes, e. The most important new feature is the DNS resolver, which can now simulate all TS3 client versions released so far, which behaved in ten different ways during DNS lookups see the changelog for more details.

Many people contact me these days, informing me about false-positives, especially by Kaspersky. As every antivirus should support the Lempel-Ziv-Markov algorithm LZMA that was used to compress it, the uncompressed executables are not individually scanned.

Usually 0 to 2 of around 56 scanners report something. Other than an actual suspicion, a generic suspicion is based on heuristic analysis. The antivirus software just assumes there is a threat — with no actual evidence.

Both are very popular. Programs made with them share some common code. Tuesday 19 May Wednesday 20 May Thursday 21 May Friday 22 May Saturday 23 May Sunday 24 May Monday 25 May Tuesday 26 May Wednesday 27 May Thursday 28 May Friday 29 May Saturday 30 May Sunday 31 May Monday 1 June Tuesday 2 June Thursday 4 June Friday 5 June Saturday 6 June Sunday 7 June Monday 8 June Tuesday 9 June Monday 15 June Tuesday 16 June Wednesday 17 June Friday 19 June Saturday 20 June Sunday 21 June Monday 22 June Tuesday 23 June Wednesday 24 June Thursday 25 June Friday 26 June Saturday 27 June Sunday 28 June Monday 29 June Tuesday 30 June Wednesday 1 July Thursday 2 July Friday 3 July Saturday 4 July Sunday 5 July Monday 6 July Tuesday 7 July Wednesday 8 July Thursday 9 July Friday 10 July Saturday 11 July Sunday 12 July Monday 13 July Tuesday 14 July Wednesday 15 July Thursday 16 July Friday 17 July Saturday 18 July Sunday 19 July Monday 20 July Tuesday 21 July Wednesday 22 July Thursday 23 July Friday 24 July Saturday 25 July Sunday 26 July Monday 27 July Tuesday 28 July Wednesday 29 July Thursday 30 July Friday 31 July Saturday 1 August Sunday 2 August Monday 3 August Tuesday 4 August

All boys are given the last name Singhand all girls are given the last Dripping snatch Kaur this was once a title which was conferred on an individual upon joining the Khalsa. No hymns composed by these three Gurus are included in the Guru Granth Sahib. Friday 29 May Porno for Pyros Porno for Sikismeklisteners. Sunday 4 October Mommys best kept secrets article: Sikh Gina valentina blacked raw. Sikismek

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Current plans are that YaTQA will no longer require a key to access unlimited servers by 31 Aug As a quick note: You might have noticed that YaTQA versions are no longer released on the day of beta server releases.

YaTQA 3. Be sure not to run 1. You can control the bot in many ways. You can drag and drop music from one bot to another hold Ctrl to copy.

Also, you can drag channel files and drop them on a bot. Start, pause, stop, skip or delete songs, adjust the volume or give your bot a cool name.

Make sure your query group has instanceinfo permissions to make some features appear or work correctly. Those changes included the removal of features that are no longer needed due to server changes, such as resolving usernames or the ghost mode.

Because some of them existed in the 22 Oct beta release, I now know that not many people use the beta releases. Sorry for the inconvenience.

Should you still notice any issues with missing properties, please let me know. Some people asked me about TeaSpeak. I did not run a TeaSpeak server for over half a year now and have never used it for longer than a few hours or in a production environment.

Anything else is likely to only be implemented when only 2 or 3 of the following criteria are left:.

It does not announce a server software, therefore the TeamSpeak 5 server will still be called TeamSpeak 3 Server.

There are only a very few features in YaTQA that require compatiblity with the client, e. BBcode or DNS. However, when I updated Firefox, my update checker configuration was lost.

This fixes an error with badges not displaying resource 70xx not found and with incorrect calculation of text length when replacing selected text.

No change at all to YaTQA. I just updated NSIS. See the 3. This comes after a lot of beta versions not announced in these news which gradually improved the SVG support introduced in the first beta and added some new features, most notably the pseudo snapshot feature which helps you move from almost any host to an own instance, requiring only basic Server Admin permissions on the source server — at the cost of losing your server keypair clients will receive a warning if they had the server bookmarked.

Well, it could be worse. Oh, and support for server version 3. That version is so ridiculous, I almost forgot to mention this change.

It is the stable summer release for It includes the changes from 3. This version adds a new feature that allows you to scan your servers for people who have assigned permissions.

This makes it easy to find security risks. Look out especially for member add power and permission modify power. Also, this version includes some fixes for Blacklist2.

The day before yesterday, a correct response for blacklisted servers has been added to the serverside backend used by YaTQA.

If you are still reported an unknown response, let me know. See the changelog for more info. After a day of reverse engineering the TeamSpeak 3.

Server nicknames however are simple enough to use a function in Windows. Using a tunnel server also allows me to update result interpretation, because not much is known at this point.

Please report addresses for which YaTQA asks you to report them. This version was released for testing the downscale algorithm for high-res icons added in the 3.

Please report any issues. The VirusTotal report has 1 find at the time of the release. Note: The new three addon creator badges do not officially exist yet.

So far, these are my favorites this month:. First, there was a user who complained about a crash. Since v3. More recently, icons with large dimensions count as invalid as well.

The warning message notifies the users that they have to delete the icon or YaTQA might crash. Said user complained that if he chooses not to delete the icon, YaTQA does actually crash.

There is a copy protection in YaTQA. Because the message makes no sense, people will report this as a bug and I frequently get complaints from people who — according to mail address and name — never registered a key.

I just love trolling software pirates. Not sorry. Below that sentence, there was a link that showed the message that appears if your version is pirated.

It includes primarily updates related to badges. YaTQA can have all badges and it can have the same badge more than once.

The VirusTotal report is clean once more. The download is no longer hosted on my personal website but is now part of the YaTQA website. Therefore, there is no logging anymore.

If you disable Windows Application Experience, writing. No idea what sense that makes. Also, I could delete those files just fine, I just couldn't write them.

So I host my dev snapshots myself now. Also, the download speed is faster than MEGA. The Sikh scriptures use Hindu terminology, with references to the Vedas , and the names of gods and goddesses in Hindu bhakti movement traditions, such as Vishnu, Shiva, Brahma, Parvati, Lakshmi, Saraswati, Rama, Krishna, but not to worship.

While the Guru Granth Sahib acknowledges the Vedas , Puranas and Qur'an , [] it does not imply a syncretic bridge between Hinduism and Islam, [] but emphasises focusing on nitnem banis like Japu repeating mantra of the divine Name of God — WaheGuru , instead of Muslim practices such as circumcision or praying on a carpet, or Hindu rituals such as wearing thread or praying in a river.

The Dasam Granth is important to a great number of Sikhs, however it does not have the same authority as the Guru Granth Sahib.

Five versions of Dasam Granth exist, and the authenticity of the Dasam Granth has in modern times become one of the most debated topics within Sikhism.

The text played a significant role in Sikh history, but in modern times parts of the text have seen antipathy and discussion among Sikhs.

Although not scripture in the strictest sense, they provide a hagiographic look at Guru Nanak's life and the early start of Sikhism.

Observant Sikhs adhere to long-standing practices and traditions to strengthen and express their faith. Baptized Sikhs recite the five morning prayers, the evening and night prayer.

There are many gurdwaras prominently constructed and maintained across India, as well as in almost every nation where Sikhs reside.

Gurdwaras are open to all, regardless of religion, background, caste, or race. Worship in a gurdwara consists chiefly of singing of passages from the scripture.

Sikhs will commonly enter the gurdwara, touch the ground before the holy scripture with their foreheads. The gurdwara is also the location for the historic Sikh practice of " Langar " or the community meal.

All gurdwaras are open to anyone of any faith for a free meal, always vegetarian. Guru Amar Das chose festivals for celebration by Sikhs like Vaisakhi , wherein he asked Sikhs to assemble and share the festivities as a community.

Vaisakhi is one of the most important festivals of Sikhs, while other significant festivals commemorate the birth, lives of the Gurus and Sikh martyrs.

Historically, these festivals have been based on the moon calendar Bikrami calendar. Sikh festivals include the following:.

Some take home the sacred water of the tank particularly for sick friends and relatives, [] [] believing that the waters of such sacred sites have restorative powers and the ability to purify one's karma.

Upon a child's birth, the Guru Granth Sahib is opened at a random point and the child is named using the first letter on the top left hand corner of the left page.

All boys are given the last name Singh , and all girls are given the last name Kaur this was once a title which was conferred on an individual upon joining the Khalsa.

Its official recognition and adoption came in , during the Singh Sabha Movement. Upon death, the body of a Sikh is usually cremated. If this is not possible, any respectful means of disposing the body may be employed.

The initiated Sikh, who is believed to be reborn , is referred to as Amritdhari or Khalsa Sikh, while those who are not initiated or baptised are referred to as Kesdhari or Sahajdhari Sikhs.

The first time that this ceremony took place was on Vaisakhi , which fell on 30 March at Anandpur Sahib in Punjab. To males who initiated, the last name Singh, meaning "lion", was given, while the last name Kaur, meaning "princess", was given to baptised Sikh females.

Together they would sing devotional songs all night in front of the public, and bathe in the river in the morning. One day, at the usual bath, Nanak went missing and his family feared he had drowned.

Thereafter, Nanak started preaching his ideas that form the tenets of Sikhism. In , Guru Nanak at age 50, started a small commune in Kartarpur and his disciples came to be known as Sikhs.

There are two competing theories on Guru Nanak's teachings. According to Singha, "Sikhism does not subscribe to the theory of incarnation or the concept of prophethood.

But it has a pivotal concept of Guru. He is not an incarnation of God, not even a prophet. He is an illumined soul.

The Sikh revelations include the words of non-Sikh bhagats , some who lived and died before the birth of Nanak, and whose teachings are part of the Sikh scriptures.

The roots of the Sikh tradition are, states Louis Fenech, perhaps in the Sant -tradition of India whose ideology grew to become the Bhakti tradition.

The development of Sikhism was influenced by the Bhakti movement ; [vi] [vii] [viii] and Vaishnawa Hinduism. Sri Chand , Guru Nanak's son was also a religious man, and continued his own commune of Sikhs.

His followers came to be known as the Udasi Sikhs, the first parallel sect of Sikhism that formed in Sikh history. Guru Angad, before joining Guru Nanak's commune, worked as a pujari priest and religious teacher centered around Hindu goddess Durga.

Guru Amar Das became the third Sikh Guru in at the age of He adhered to the Vaishnavism tradition of Hinduism for much of his life, before joining the commune of Guru Angad.

He was a reformer, and discouraged veiling of women's faces a Muslim custom as well as sati a Hindu custom.

The collection of revenue from Sikhs through regional appointees helped Sikhism grow. This city grew and later became Amritsar — the holiest city of Sikhism.

The choice of successor, as throughout most of the history of Sikh Guru successions, led to disputes and internal divisions among the Sikhs.

Guru Arjan is remembered in the Sikh for many things. He built the first Harimandir Sahib later to become the Golden Temple. In , he was tortured and killed by the Mughal emperor Jahangir , [] for refusing to convert to Islam.

After the martyrdom of Guru Arjan, his son Guru Hargobind at age eleven became the sixth Guru of the Sikhs and Sikhism dramatically evolved to become a political movement in addition to being religious.

The building of an armed Sikh militia began with Guru Hargobind. It is unclear how many years he served in prison, with different texts stating it to be between 2 and 12 years.

The Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan attempted political means to undermine the Sikh tradition, by dividing and influencing the succession.

Guru Hargobind rejected Dhir Mal, the later refused to give up the original version of the Adi Granth he had, and the Sikh community was divided.

Guru Har Rai is famed to have met Dara Shikoh during a time Dara Shikoh and his younger brother Aurangzeb were in a bitter succession fight.

He nominated his younger son Guru Har Krishan to succeed him in Aurangzeb responded by granting Ram Rai a jagir land grant.

Ram Rai founded a town there and enjoyed Aurangzeb's patronage, the town came to be known as Dehradun, after Dehra referring to Ram Rai's shrine.

Sikhs who followed Ram Rai came to be known as Ramraiya Sikhs. No hymns composed by these three Gurus are included in the Guru Granth Sahib.

Tegh Bahadur resisted the forced conversions of Kashmiri Pandits [] and non-Muslims [] to Islam , and was publicly beheaded in on the orders of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in Delhi for refusing to convert to Islam.

His body was cremated in Delhi, the head was carried secretively by Sikhs and cremated in Anandpur. Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Delhi.

The long window under the marble platform is the location where Guru Tegh Bahadur was executed by the Mughals.

Artsistic rendering of the execution of Bhai Mati Das by the Mughals. Guru Gobind Singh inaugurated the Khalsa the collective body of all initiated Sikhs as the Sikh temporal authority in the year It created a community that combines its spiritual purpose and goals with political and military duties.

The Sikh Khalsa's rise to power began in the 17th century during a time of growing militancy against Mughal rule.

Banda Singh advanced his army towards the main Muslim Mughal city of Sirhind and, following the instructions of the Guru, punished all the culprits.

Soon after the invasion of Sirhind, while resting in his chamber after the Rehras prayer Guru Gobind Singh was stabbed by a Pathan assassin hired by Mughals.

Gobind Singh killed the attacker with his sword. Though a European surgeon stitched the Guru's wound, the wound re-opened as the Guru tugged at a hard strong bow after a few days, causing profuse bleeding that led to Gobind Singh's death.

The confederacy of Sikh warrior bands known as misls emerged, but these fought between themselves. Ranjit Singh achieved a series of military victories and created a Sikh Empire in The Sikh empire had its capital in Lahore , spread over almost , square miles , square kilometres comprising what is now northwestern Indian subcontinent.

The Sikh Empire entered into a treaty with the colonial British powers, with each side recognizing Sutlej River as the line of control and agreeing not to invade the other side.

Ranjit Singh had failed to establish a lasting structure for Sikh government or stable succession, and the Sikh Empire rapidly declined after his death.

Factions divided the Sikhs, and led to Anglo-Sikh wars. The British easily defeated the confused and demoralised Khalsa forces , then disbanded them into destitution.

The Singh Sabha movement , a movement to revitalize Sikhism, also saw the resurgence of the Khalsa after their defeat by the British in the Anglo-Sikh wars , [] and the subsequent decline and corruption of Sikh institutions during colonial rule, and the proselytization of other faith groups in the Punjab.

The last Maharaja of the Sikh Empire Duleep Singh converted to Christianity in , a controversial but influential event in Sikh history.

Along with his conversion, and after Sikh Empire had been dissolved and the region made a part of the colonial British Empire, proselytising activities of Christians , Brahmo Samajis , Arya Samaj , Muslim Anjuman-i-Islamia and Ahmadiyah sought to convert the Sikhs in northwestern Indian subcontinent into their respective faiths.

The first meeting of the movement was in the Golden Temple , Amritsar in , and it was largely launched by the Sanatan Sikhs , Gianis, priests, and granthis.

Sanatan Sikhs led by Khem Singh Bedi — who claimed to be a direct descendant of Guru Nanak, Avtar Singh Vahiria and others supported a more inclusive approach which considered Sikhism as a reformed tradition of Hinduism, while Tat Khalsa campaigned for an exclusive approach to the Sikh identity, disagreeing with Sanatan Sikhs and seeking to modernize Sikhism.

Sikhs participated and contributed to the decades-long Indian independence movement from the colonial rule in the first half of the 20th century.

This event, states Banga, was a watershed event in Sikh history. According to Banga and other scholars, the Sikhs had strongly opposed the Muslim League demands and saw it as "perpetuation of Muslim domination" and anti-Sikh policies in what just a hundred years before was a part of the Sikh Empire.

As such, Sikh organizations, including the Chief Khalsa Dewan and Shiromani Akali Dal led by Master Tara Singh , condemned the Lahore Resolution and the movement to create Pakistan, viewing it as inviting possible persecution; the Sikhs largely thus strongly opposed the partition of India.

When partition was announced, the newly created line divided the Sikh population into two halves. The Sikhs suffered organized violence and riots against them in West Pakistan, and Sikhs moved en masse to the Indian side leaving behind their property and the sacred places of Sikhism.

This reprisals on Sikhs were not one sided, because as Sikhs entered the Indian side, the Muslims in East Punjab experienced reprisals and they moved to West Pakistan.

The Sikhs were the economic elite and wealthiest in West Punjab, with them having the largest representation in West Punjab's aristocracy, nearly Gurdwaras and educational institutions that served the interests of the Sikhs.

The Muslim League rejected this approach, demanding that entire Punjab should be granted to Pakistan. Between March and August , a series of riots, arson, plunder of Sikh property, assassination of Sikh leaders, and killings in Jhelum districts, Rawalpindi, Attock and other places made Tara Singh call the situation in Punjab as "civil war", while Lord Mountbatten stated "civil war preparations were going on".

The riots had triggered the early waves of migration in April, with some 20, people leaving northwest Punjab and moving to Patiala. The Sikh leaders made desperate petitions, but all religious communities were suffering in the political turmoil.

When the partition line was formally announced in August , the violence was unprecedented, with Sikhs being one of the most affected religious community both in terms of deaths, as well as property loss, injury, trauma and disruption.

The partition created the "largest foot convoy of refugees recorded in [human] history, stretching over kilometer long", states Banga, with nearly , people consisting of mostly "distraught, suffering, injured and angry Sikhs".

Sikh and Hindu refugees from Pakistan flooded into India, Muslim refugees from India flooded into Pakistan, each into their new homeland. The early s witnessed some Sikh groups seeking an independent nation named Khalistan carved out from India and Pakistan.

The Golden Temple and Akal Takht were occupied by various militant groups in Numerous soldiers, civilians and militants died in the cross fire.

Within days of the Operation Bluestar, some 2, Sikh soldiers in India mutinied and attempted to reach Amritsar to liberate the Golden Temple.

The assassination triggered the anti-Sikh riots. The Sikhs and their neighbors, for most part, ignored attempts to provoke riots and communal strife.

Sikhism was founded in northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent in what is now Pakistan. Some of the Gurus were born near Lahore and in other parts of Pakistan.

Prior to , in British India, millions of Sikhs lived in what later became Pakistan. During the partition, Sikhs and Hindus left the newly created Muslim-majority Pakistan and mostly moved to Hindu-majority India - with some moving to Muslim-majority Afghanistan [] , - while Muslims in India left and moved to Pakistan.

The Sikhs in Pakistan, like others in the region, have been "rocked by an Islamist insurgency for more than a decade".

Sikh sects are sub-traditions within Sikhism that believe in an alternate lineage of Gurus, or have a different interpretation of the Sikh scriptures, or believe in following a living Guru, or other concepts that differ from the orthodox Khalsa Sikhs.

Later on Ramraiya sect grew in Dehradun with the patronage of Aurangzeb. Some of these sects were financially and administratively supported by the Mughal rulers in the hopes of gaining a more favorable and compliant citizenry.

After the collapse of Mughal Empire, and particularly during the rule of Ranjit Singh, Udasi Sikhs protected Sikh shrines, preserved the Sikh scripture and rebuilt those that were desecrated or destroyed during the Muslim—Sikh wars.

However, Udasi Sikhs kept idols and images inside these Sikh temples. All these sects differ from Khalsa orthodox Sikhs in their beliefs and practices, such as continuing to solemnize their weddings around fire and being strictly vegetarian.

The Nirankari sect though unorthodox was influential in shaping the views of Tat Khalsa and the contemporary era Sikh beliefs and practices.

According to Surinder Jodhka, the state of Punjab with a Sikh majority has the "largest proportion of scheduled caste population in India". Although decried by Sikhism, Sikhs have practiced a caste system.

The system, along with untouchability, has been more common in rural parts of Punjab. The landowning dominant Sikh castes, states Jodhka, "have not shed all their prejudices against the lower castes or dalits ; while dalits would be allowed entry into the village gurdwaras they would not be permitted to cook or serve langar.

According to Jodhka, due to economic mobility in contemporary Punjab, castes no longer mean an inherited occupation nor are work relations tied to a single location.

Despite being very small in numbers, the Kshatriya Khatri and Arora castes wield considerable influence within the Sikh community.

Other common Sikh castes include Sainis , Ramgarhias artisans , Ahluwalias formerly brewers , Kambojs rural caste , Labanas , Kumhars and the two Dalit castes, known in Sikh terminology as the Mazhabis the Chuhras and the Ravidasias the Chamars.

Sikhism is the fifth-largest amongst the major world religions , and one of the youngest. Large communities of Sikhs migrate to the neighboring states such as Indian State of Haryana which is home to the second largest Sikh population in India with 1.

Sikh migration to Canada began in the 19th century and led to the creation of significant Sikh communities, predominantly in South Vancouver , British Columbia , Surrey, British Columbia , and Brampton, Ontario.

Today temples, newspapers, radio stations, and markets cater to these large, multi-generational Indo-Canadian groups.

Sikh festivals such as Vaisakhi and Bandi Chhor are celebrated in those Canadian cities by the largest groups of followers in the world outside the Punjab.

These communities developed as Sikhs migrated out of Punjab to fill in gaps in imperial labour markets.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Religion originating in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent. Not to be confused with Sikkim.

Sikh gurus. Select revered saints. General topics. Main article: Ik Onkar. See also: Bhakti. Main article: Sikh gurus. Main articles: Sikhism and Hinduism and Islam and Sikhism.

Main article: Dasam Granth. Main article: History of Sikhism. Main article: Singh Sabha Movement. Main article: Sikh.

Main article: Sects of Sikhism. Further information: Sikhism in India , Sikh diaspora , and Sikhism by country. Further information: Prohibitions in Sikhism and Diet in Sikhism.

Singh, Khushwant. The Illustrated History of the Sikhs. Oxford University Press. Kosh, Gur Shabad Ratnakar Mahan. Diversity and Unity in Federal Countries.

McGill Queen University Press. Sikhism rejects the practice of converting people to other religious traditions.

London: Kuperard. Reichberg and H. Syse ed. Cambridge University Press. The predominant ideology of the Sant parampara in turn corresponds in many respects to the much wider devotional Bhakti tradition in northern India.

Pashaura and Fenech , p. US: Turner Broadcasting System. Sikhism: a very short introduction. Philosophy of Sikhism: Reality and Its Manifestations.

Atlantic Publishers. Wallingford, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. Retrieved 7 August The Sikhs. New York: Alfred A Knopf. Historical Dictionary of Sikhism 3rd ed.

God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston. McGill—Queen's University Press. The Making of Sikh Scripture. US: Oxford University Press. Concept Publishing Company.

University of Chicago Press. The Encyclopedia of Sikhism over Entries. Philadelphia: Chelsea House. Sussex Academic Press. Sikhism:Religion in focus.

Black Rabbit Books. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Mumbai Mirror. SUNY Press. A large number of Hindu and Muslim peasants converted to Sikhism from conviction, fear, economic motives, or a combination of the three Khushwant Singh ; Ganda Singh Fenech The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies.

Journal of the American Oriental Society. History of Sikh Gurus Retold: — Encyclopaedia of Great Festivals. Abhinav Publications. Encyclopaedia of Sikhism.

Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 9 April Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed. Bloomsbury Academic. Understanding Sikhism, the Research Journal 2 : 3.

Retrieved 10 November Agree to Differ. The Hans India. Retrieved 10 July Merriam-Webster's encyclopedia of world religions.

Retrieved 15 June You are the One True Lord and Master of all the other beings, of so many worlds. Searches in Sikhism.

Hemkunt Press. Sikhism and Indian Civilization. Discovery Publishing House. Paths to The Divine: Ancient and Indian: Singh, Japji, , Hemkunt Press, p.

In Sikh religion the word 'Guru' does not denote a teacher, or an expert or a guide in human body. Janmeja Meji August The Sikh Review.

Archived from the original PDF on 3 December Retrieved 29 November Definitions of Sikhism" PDF. Understanding Sikhism — the Research Journal.

Archived from the original PDF on 4 December Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. The Sikhs of the Punjab. UK: Cambridge University Press.

Dorling Kindersley. Wayne April Bibliotheca Sacra. The Encyclopedia of Sikhism. New Delhi, India: Hemkunt Press. The Sikh and Sikhism.

Searches in Sikhism 1st ed. New Delhi: Hemkunt Press. Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Sikhism Today. Bloomsbury Publishing.

London: Routledge. Singh and L E. University of Tennessee Press. Raj South Asian Religions: Tradition and Today.

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